Hawking’s voice was his tool and trademark

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By , 18/09/2019 20:44

The technology of Stephen Hawking’s means of communication evolved but he chose the original voice.Stephen Hawking’s computer-generated voice was known to millions of people around the world, a robotic drawl that somehow enhanced the profound impact of the cosmological secrets he revealed.
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The technology behind his means of communication was upgraded through the years, offering him the chance to sound less like a machine, but he insisted on sticking to the original voice because it had effectively become his own.

The renowned theoretical physicist, who died on Wednesday aged 76, lost his ability to speak more than three decades ago after a tracheotomy linked to complications in the motor neurone disease he was diagnosed with at the age of 21.

He later told the BBC he had considered committing suicide by not breathing after the operation, but he said the “reflex to breathe was too strong”.

Hawking started to communicate again using his eyebrows to indicate letters on a spelling card.

A Cambridge University colleague contacted a company which had developed a program to allow a user to select words using a hand clicker, according to a 2014 report in Wired magazine.

It was linked to an early speech synthesiser, which turned Hawking’s text into spoken language.

In 1997, PC chipmaker Intel Corp stepped in to improve Hawking’s computer-based communication system, and in 2014 it upgraded the technology to make it faster and easier for Hawking to communicate.

It used algorithms developed by SwiftKey, a British software company best known for its predictive text technology used in smartphones.

Hawking provided lectures and other texts to help the algorithm learn his language, and it could predict the word he wanted to use by just inputting 10-15 per cent of the letters.

But despite the upgrades to the software, one thing remained constant: the voice itself.

Hawking stuck with the sound produced by his first speech synthesiser made in 1986.

It helped cement his place in popular culture.

“I keep it because I have not heard a voice I like better and because I have identified with it,” he said in 2006.

Up Front with Tony Butterfield: Why the Knights will need to improve against Canberra

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By , 18/09/2019 20:44

THAT’S GOLD: Newcastle captain Mitchell Pearce and teammates celebrate after their extra-time with against Manly. Picture: Darren Pateman
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ST George Illawarraand Melbourne were the most impressive teams out of the blocks in round one of the NRL.

The Titans and the Knights won on the bell, the Warriors foretold of the usual promise and the Tigers’ rebuild is so good, so far. At the foot of the mountain, the Panthers laid to rest, for now, any conjecture over the morale at the joint. The Johnathan Thurston-led Cowboys notched an impressive win against 2016 premiers and short-priced contenders, the Sharks. If the opening exchanges offer any clue, there will be plenty of congestion fighting for seventh and eighth spots come finals time.

Read more: Knights pack primed for next raid

The reduced interchange allowance, while seemingly minor in the scheme of things, appears to have ushered in a leaner, more dynamic physical profile for the modern footballer.

It was also interesting to see the referees stamping down on rolling the ball in the ruck. Irritating for some as we correct the open-slather legacy of last season, but them’s the rules. Hopefullythey stick to their guns.

Otherwise, some big games this week for those who tasted defeat in round one– woe betide any of those who finish this weekend without a win. The other side of the same coin will see some teams race to a four-point lead on the table. Big stakes already, and we’ve just got started.

On the home front, things have kicked off nicely for the local team. On the back of a low-risk strategy,high completion rate, and superior field position courtesy of a 2-1 advantage in the kicking game, the Knights did something they haven’t done for a while. Win a tight one.

Credit where it’s due, the Beagles were perhaps the better side doing more with the ball when they had it.

But with a tenacity that needs to become their hallmark, the Knights defended their tryline like it meant something. Kalyn Ponga’s effort in denying Aku Uate, in particular, a winning touchdown was as masterful as it was brave. And, he kicks goals and score tries. This bloke, he’s a keeper!

Along with Ponga, fellow debutants Slade Griffin and “JJ”Pearce were standouts, with Herman Ese’ese and Mitch Barnett busy and effective. On the whole, it’s two valuable points and a positive start for all connections. Yeah!

Read more: Knights cop warning for off-field behaviour

*NOWfor the Raiders. Ricky Stuart’s mobwere both desperately unlucky and a tad incompetent to lose from 18 points up against the Titans last weekend. Stickywill be demanding they don’t make that mistake again.

Which meansif our boys concede as much territory as they have in the past two outings, the monster Raiders could ride roughshod.

You see, the challenge of addressing problems of team cohesion rubs both withand without the ball. Conservative play with the ball can be managed to minimise combination risk.

But a passive, uncertain, or sometimes backtracking defensive line can be terminal and is not an option.

Which is not to say we haven’t had our moments, nor that a containment shape isn’t the best solution to a given circumstance. Quite the contrary.

But consistently claiming as much of one’s “real estate”, from the ref to the advantage line, each play, needs to become the default setting for this team if they’re to compete with the big boys in a game of inches. If not, the big power runners of not just Canberrawill set up camp in our half this season.

Knights by 2.

*MARK Twain once observed that history doesn’t repeat itself, but itsure can rhyme.

A pearler of an example this week is the similarity between the early public comments of former chair of the ARL Commission, John Grant, and that of his successor, (another Queenslander) Peter Beattie. In stuff you couldn’t script, the former labelled Cronulla-Sutherland the “Hawks” in 2014, and Beattie also was unable tothe name the same52-year-old club, whowon thegrand final not 18 months ago.

Spare me days. A credibility killer par excellence for the new head commissar. All the while, the average fans areshaking their heads at the failed constitutional-vote palava, and, now it seems the guy in charge is not across his brief. It doesn’t exactly inspire confidence, especially asissues of strategic importance have been on the backburner.

Meanwhile, his refreshed board is being sold with a sharper edge. I’ll reserve judgment as one hopes they get quickly into stride across some big-ticket issues. Recent tax-treatment murmurs, ominous signals from Europe over the future value of pay and free-to-air rights,and ongoing division in clubland, are but the tip of the iceberg.

Read more: Knights launch new era with golden-point triumph over Manly

Just below the waterline we have dwindling junior-boys participation,declining local clubs in the city and the bush,and increasingly scarce trainers, coaches and administrators skilled enough to manage the complex risk and protocol regimes of the modern junior game.

Throw in the festering player-agent scandal,the red herring of expansion, and the policing of rules and practices that reduce concussion risk,and it becomes abundantly clear these leaders need some time to think, and perhaps consult with those who know the game better than they.

On the positive side of the ledger, fans are engaged.The women’s league is taking off,player-workplace agreements are in place andthe 272 first-graders on display last week did what they do best.On balance, aglass half-full.

*THOSEAFL guys are always a step ahead of us leaguies.

Again this week their players announced they would forgoover $24 millionof their funding allocation for it to be redirected into past-player health and welfare programs.

What a brilliant gesture to the old guard. While the NRL has its Men of League foundation, the funding it raises (via a vast and committed volunteer base)is entirely inadequate for the task at hand, nor in the future.

They need help. The AFL players have shown the way by offering support to those that dug their well. Those in the NRL whoquench their thirst from a deep well of their ownmight spare a thought. Just saying.

For every Newcastle coffee drinker and coffee cafe, there’s a great coffee story

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By , 18/09/2019 20:44

Savour the memory: Graeme Thrift and his wife Sarah at work at their cafe, Corner Lane Espresso in New Lambton. Picture: Max Mason-HubersCoffee and stories go together like love and marriage, bread and butter, black and white.
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As the Newcastle coffee scene continues to boom, so does the conversation about it.

Graeme Thrift, the owner and operator of Corner Lane Espresso and Little Lane Espresso in New Lambton,has warm memories of the cup of coffee that left the biggest impression on him.

“I was travelling through Italy in my 20s, driving around in a little Renault Clio,” Thrift said. “I stopped for gas at an old style servo with ‘cafe’. Inside an old Italian man motioned for a coffee from his old chrome machine. Not realising being later in the day, he would only give me an espresso and that’s what I got, with a couple of sugars thrown in. No English was spoken just some cash and a nod.

“It was so dark, thick and syrupy, but I was buzzing the rest of the day. Definitely got us to Venice quicker.

“I could never have imagined some 25years later I would be working our espresso bars with legendary Italian Faema coffee machines and roasting our own coffee. Grazie Millie.”

Thrift’s story about his most memorable coffee is one of 50 told in this Saturday’s Weekender cover story, as writer Nathalie Craig asks the question, ‘What is a perfect cup?’

From Adamstown to Swansea, Woodville to Bar Beach, baristas androasterstell Weekenderabout their “perfect cup” of coffee.

For AngeloLuczak, a barista at Moor in Newcastle’s East End, it was a cup of Ethiopian Yirgacheffe that set him on his career path.

For Alice Joy at Pickled & Pressed cafe in The Junction, “coffee is a moment of pure pleasure”.

Enjoy our Saturday read.

Tasmania on top in battle for Shield final

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By , 18/09/2019 20:44

Andrew Fekete has put Tasmania in the box seat to make the Shield final after a six-wicket haul.Tasmania are in the box seat in their battle with Victoria for a Sheffield Shield final berth after a career-best haul from Andrew Fekete on day two in Hobart.
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At stumps on Thursday, the Tigers were 4-73 in their second innings – an overall lead of 235 runs.

The winners are guaranteed second place on the ladder and a spot in the final from March 23 against runaway leaders Queensland in Brisbane.

Fekete was the chief destroyer under overcast skies at Bellerive Oval, taking 6-67 as the Bushrangers were skittled for 182.

The 32-year-old had openers Travis Dean and Marcus Harris nicking and bowled the dangerous Glenn Maxwell for 17 before lunch.

He took three scalps in an eight-ball burst in the middle session.

“Post-Big Bash, I found a bit of rhythm which I probably haven’t felt for a few years,” Fekete said.

“The last few games, I feel I’ve been bowling well. Today was just the day where I got the edges and rewards.”

“(There’s) a lot riding on the result – very happy with the performance.”

Allrounder Dan Christian played a lone hand with an aggressive 69 but was bowled by Tom Rogers (2-24) trying to accelerate the scoring.

A brace of wickets to former Test quick Peter Siddle late in the day kept the Bushrangers in the running.

Jake Doran (23no) and Matthew Wade (2no) grafted to stumps for the Tigers.

Tasmania have maintained second place on the ladder ahead of Victoria after the allocation of first-innings bonus points.

“I’d rather be in our position than theirs at the moment,” Fekete said.

“But as we’ve seen, batting conditions have been challenging most of the game.

“We’ve still got a bit of batting to come but need to have a good first session tomorrow morning.”

Earlier, the Tigers’ lower order added 40 to their overnight score to finish on 344.

Chris Tremain was the pick of the Bushrangers’ bowlers with 6-81.

Why Stephen Hawking didn’t win a Nobel

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By , 18/09/2019 20:44

Stephen Hawking missed out on a Nobel Prize because his theories have not yet been proven.Stephen Hawking won accolades from his peers for having one of the most brilliant minds in science, but he never got a Nobel Prize because no one has yet proven his ideas.
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The Nobel committee looks for proof, not big ideas. Hawking was a deep thinker – a theorist – and his musings about black holes and cosmology have yet to get the lockdown evidence that accompanies the physics prizes, his fellow scientists said.

“The Nobel Prize is not given to the smartest person or even the one who makes the greatest contribution to science. It’s given to discovery,” said California Institute of Technology physicist Sean Carroll.

“Hawking’s best theories have not yet been tested experimentally, which is why he hasn’t won a prize.”

Hawking has often been compared to Nobel laureate Albert Einstein, and he died on the 139th anniversary of Einstein’s birth. But Einstein’s Nobel wasn’t for his famed theory of general relativity. It was for describing the photoelectric effect, and only after it was verified by Robert Millikan, said Harvard astronomer Avi Loeb.

The theory behind gravitational waves – suggested by Einstein – didn’t win science’s highest honour until there were direct observations of the faint ripples in space and time. And Peter Higgs’ theory postulating the so-called “God particle” named the Higgs boson didn’t win its Nobel until the actual particle was discovered by a massive European particle collider.

“In all cases, there was an experiment-verified prediction,” Loeb said

Hawking’s greatest contribution – that not everything is sucked into a black hole but some radiation known as “Hawking radiation” escapes – could be proven if astronomers find the right-sized black holes. Smaller black holes – those with the mass of an asteroid – likely would produce more Hawking radiation than larger ones, Loeb said.

“People have searched for mini black holes of this mass, but have so far not found any,” Hawking said in a 2016 lecture. “This is a pity because if they had I would have got a Nobel Prize.”

Hawking lost another chance when an experiment at first seemed to find waves from inflation in the early universe that would also have confirmed Hawking radiation. But the observation didn’t quite hold up, Loeb said.

NASA astronomer and Nobel laureate John Mather said he doubted it would have changed Hawking’s life. Anyway, he said, “everyone loves Stephen’s work”.

AFL exile about to end for de Goey at Pies

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By , 18/08/2019 10:50

Collingwood midfielder Jordan De Goey’s AFL exile is about to end.Jordan De Goey’s AFL exile will end next Monday as the Collingwood bad boy continues his push for a return to senior football.
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Magpies captain Scott Pendlebury said he and other club leaders have stayed in touch with De Goey during his club suspension.

The midfielder has trained with Collingwood’s VFL squad and worked during the day in landscaping after last month’s drink driving offence.

A hamstring injury has complicated De Goey’s AFL return and he is definitely sidelined for round one.

“From all reports, he is going well,” Pendlebury said.

“The training he’s been doing with the VFL was really good until he hurt that hammy.

“From all reports he’s going really well and I think I’ve said it before, we know that footy’s not the issue – he does that really well.

“We’re just trying to teach him some life lessons … you don’t want to baby him, but you keep in touch, make sure he’s going okay.”

De Goey’s off-field drama has added to a challenging off-season for the Magpies, who have also managed several injuries to key players.

But Pendlebury said the squad is in good shape and they will have 28 players vying for selection ahead of their round-one game against Hawthorn.

“That’s probably the excitement for me, I’m not sure who’s playing round one,” he said.

Pendlebury added newly re-signed coach Nathan Buckley had made some lifestyle changes, but otherwise is much the same man he has worked with for 15 years.

“Bucks is doing a lot more yoga this year, so I think that’s changed in his approach, and he’s dropped a little bit of weight – I don’t know if that’s helped him relax,” Pendlebury said.

“This is all serious.

“But in terms of his coaching, it’s very much the same … maybe the yoga has been good for him.

“He’s been great, he’s been a rock for the whole football club.”

While Collingwood finished 13th last year, their biggest losing margin was only 37 points.

Their finals hopes were cruelled by a 2-6 start to the season.

“We were happy with the way we were playing, we just couldn’t finish off our work,” he said of their errant goalkicking, a big weakness last year.

“Everything was holding up really well, but then I think the guys got a little caught up with looking at the ladder.”

One big potential gain is Darcy Moore switching from attack to defence.

“He looked really good down back and Tommy Langdon – another one, a bit of a forgotten player,” Pendlebury said.

“Darcy, Howey (Jeremy Howe) – it’s a pretty strong half-back line that can take marks and fly for the ball.”

Newcastle Knights utility Connor Watson braces for heavy traffic in Canberra.

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By , 18/08/2019 10:50

HE isNewcastle’ssmallest player, and livewire utility Connor Watson expects to be targeted in defence by Canberra’s heavyweights during Sunday’s showdown at GIO Stadium.
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One of four former Roosters to join the Knights in the off-season, Watson has been named to start his second successive match at five-eighth, but the selection of Brock Lamb on Newcastle’s bench ensures they are likely to again share the pivot role.

TOUGH: Connor Watson

In last week’s 19-18 win against Manly, Watson deputised as a stopgap dummy-half during Slade Griffin’s 11-minute breather in the second half, which meant he had to defend in the middle of the ruck.

At 176 centimeteres and 87 kilograms, he will be dwarfed on Sunday by Raiders front-rowers Shannon Boyd and Junior Paulo, who each outweigh him by more than 30 kilograms.

Given that he missed six of the 22 tackles he attempted against Manly, Watson’s name is likely to feature prominently in Canberra’s game plan.

But the 21-year-old has no qualms about competing outside his weight division.

“Being a little bloke, you have to make most of tackles because they see the height difference in the line and run at you,” Watsonsaid on Thursday. “Every time I’ve played hooker, I’ve been run at a fair bit. But it’s NRL, it’s first grade.

“You can’t really hide out there in any position. Whether you’re playing [hooker] or on the wing, you’re still going to have to make tackles.”

Watson said that in some regards, he found it easierdealing with the heavy traffic he will encounter around the rucks.

“Defending in the middle is not too bad, because you’re defending with other people,” he said. “You defend as a group, whereas if you defend on the edge, you have to make a lot of one-on-one tackles, which is a bit harder.

“So when those big blokes are coming at you, you’ve got a bloke either side of you, coming to help.

“That helps being at [hooker].”

Watson was promised first shot at the five-eighth role when he signed for Newcastle but it now appears he might be asked to fill a variety of positions, as was the case during his 38 games with the Roosters.

As well as his brief stint at hooker against Manly, he also filled in at centre when Sione Mata’utia suffered cramp.

“I’m starting there [at five-eighth], and that’s what I wanted to do, is start in that jumper,” he said.“But for the team’s sake, if I need to move into [hooker] for a period of time, well I’m happy to do that.”

Knights coach Nathan Brown was unsure if Lamb would receive more game time this week, after a 23-minute cameo against Manly.

But he was pleased with how Lamb, Watson and skipper Mitchell Pearce combined when they were on the field together.

“I’m not sure if we got it perfect when we used him [Lamb] or not, and just because we won the game, I don’t think that highlights whether we did or didn’t,” he said.“But he certainly was good when he was out there.

“Connor certainly did well when he was there. He’s a very different player [to Lamb], obviously …in an ideal world, a little bit more time [for Lamb] would probably be perfect.

“How it unfolds, I’m not too sure.

“But Brock on the field and Connor on the field, those guys all on there together, certainly seems to make us a formidable team.”

Meanwhile, rugged back-rower Luke Yates appears the likely candidate to come onto Newcastle’s bench rotation ifco-captain Jamie Buhrer is ruled out.

Brown said Buhrer suffered“a knock” against Manly, although he was hopeful of making the trip to Canberra.

Yates appeared to be on standby at training on Thursday.

The 23-year-old local junior, who played in 19 NRL games for Newcastle last season, has been named in jumper No.21 but it would be no surprise if he featured in the game-day17.

The Knights will train again on Saturday before boarding a chartered flight to the national capital.

Our FutureEarth Hour turns on solidarity

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By , 18/08/2019 10:50

Just like the tip of the iceberg, the annual Earth Hour, celebrated this year on March 24 is but a tiny temporal sliver of the far-reaching environmental and social impacts of the projects buoyed up by the Earth Hour pledges and donations.
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This unique fund-raising activity began in Sydney in 2007 as a way of focusing on the effects of global warming and climate change, and is now a worldwide open source movement under the umbrella of the World Wildlife Federation.

Indeed more than 180 countries will turn off their lights in solidarity, and grassroots people like you and me will raise funds to protect the only planet we have.

In 2014, an alliance of organisations campaigned under Earth Hour’s banner to raise awareness of the impacts of disposable plastic bags in the Galapagos. By the end of the year, the government passed a resolution to ban plastic bags from the Islands. One day I hope that I can journey to see these animals made so famous by Charles Darwin.

However, the project that touched me most was the ongoing partnership with Solar Buddy. In 2017, Earth Hour collaborated with Solar Buddy to provide 500 portable lights to rural communities in Ethiopia.

Charged by the sun, they provide many hours of light to help students in-need with their studies, as well as replacing carbon-intensive kerosene lamps. In 2018, the program will support communities in Papua New Guinea.

I hope you turn off your lights for an hour from 8.30pm on Saturday in solidarity with the Earth and that you move your dollars in support, particularly in view of the recent devastation wreaked by the earthquakes in the PNG Highlands. An area so remote that villagers have to walk for two days to reach a made road.

Professor Tim Roberts is the director of the Tom Farrell Institute for the Environment, University of Newcastle

NSW Waratahs pack to stand up to Rebels

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By , 18/08/2019 10:50

Israel Folau says the NSW forwards must match the Rebels’ heavyweight pack.NSW’s smarting pack craves redemption after being challenged to stand up to the Melbourne Rebels in Sunday’s Super Rugby derby in Sydney.
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The Waratahs return to Allianz Stadium with tails between their legs following an insipid loss to the Jaguares in Buenos Aires and draw with the Sharks in Durban.

The game in Argentina was over before quarter-time after the Tahs conceded four tries before the break, prompting attacking trump Israel Folau to throw down the gauntlet to his forwards.

Folau says the NSW forwards must match the Rebels’ heavyweight pack.

“The game has to be won up front,” said ‘s three-time John Eales Medallist.

“They’ve got a big pack so we need go-forward and we need to get over the gain line.”

Lock Tom Staniforth, who will reunite with returning Wallabies second-rower Rob Simmons, knows the heat is on – but insists that’s nothing new.

He’s promising that the likes of Folau, Kurtley Beale and Bernard Foley get more front-foot ball against ‘s unbeaten conference leaders.

“There’s always pressure. There’s pressure if you play club footy to deliver to the backs,” Staniforth said.

“There’s pressure if you play Super Rugby. That’s our jobs; to deliver them clean ball.

“If you watched the (last) game, we probably fell short a little bit.

“But it’s round three. We’re trying to improve, we’re trying to bring that 100 per cent sort of perfect to the Tahs and we’ll eventually achieve that.”

Staniforth knows the Rebels will be aggressive, and also expects niggle.

“That’s why we play, isn’t it?. We enjoy that confrontational battle and we’re looking forward to it,” he said.

“Obviously they play like that and that’s what makes rugby so good and that we get to have these contests.”

Despite already trailing the Rebels by nine competition points, the Waratahs are refusing to panic ahead of their first conference clash of the season.

“I think we’re building,” Staniforth said.

“We’re three games into the competition, we’re learning combinations. We’re learning to know each other.

“If you’re peaking for round three, obviously you’re not going to be peaking for the grand final or the finals.”

Brumbies swing Super Rugby axe for Sharks

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By , 18/08/2019 10:50

Blake Enever has a chance to make a statement in the Brumbies’ Super Rugby clash with the Sharks.The Brumbies have swung the axe by making six changes as they look to turn around their Super Rugby season against the Sharks.
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Henry Speight is the only back-three player from the Melbourne Rebels loss to retain his spot for Saturday night’s match, with Andy Muirhead and Tevita Kuridrani coming into the starting XV.

Co-captain Sam Carter (concussion) and veteran Josh Mann-Rea (hamstring) are crucial forced changes through injury.

Two-Test Wallaby Blake Enever comes straight in for Carter at No.5 to partner Rory Arnold, while Tom Cusack replaces Lolo Fakaosilea at openside flanker.

Brumbies coach Dan McKellar said Enever had the chance to make a statement after being left out of the squads for two of the opening three games.

“I’ve really admired Blake’s attitude during a difficult period for him – after playing at Murrayfield and Twickenham (for the Wallabies) and then having to get a bus to Albury for four hours to play a (Brumbies) Runners game,” McKellar said.

Other notable changes are co-captain Christian Lealiifano moving to inside centre to pair up with Wharenui Hawera, with Kyle Godwin cut from the squad.

Fullback Tom Banks, who has been touted as a future Wallaby, has been moved to the bench with Muirhead starting in the No.15 jersey.

Hooker Connal McInerney is on the bench for his Brumbies debut, while James Dargaville and Nic Mayhew are in for their first games of the season.

“I’ve picked a team this week that is all about the team performance, and not so much on individual performance,” McKellar said.

“It’s what I think will allow us to take the opportunities that we’re creating.

“Are we in trouble? You don’t want to be 1-3, but we’d much rather get a really good result in front of our fans and turn around our record at home, which has been around 50 per cent in recent years.”

BRUMBIES:

Andy Muirhead, Henry Speight, Tevita Kuridrani, Christian Lealiifano, Lausil Taliauli, Wharenui Hawera, Joe Powell, Isi Naisarani, Tom Cusack, Lachlan McCaffrey, Blake Enever, Rory Arnold, Allan Alaalatoa, Folau Fainga’a, Scott Sio.

Res:

Connal McInerney, Nic Mayhew, Leslie Leuluaialli-Makin, Richie Arnold, Lolo Fakaosilea, Matt Lucas, James Dargaville, Tom Banks.

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